Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal
First created in 1961, the Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal (AFEM) is granted to personnel for their involvement in "any military campaign of the United States for which no other service medal is authorized." This includes the Cuban Missile Crisis between October 1962 and June 1963, actions in Lebanon, Taiwan, the Congo, Quemoy and Matsu, and for participation in Berlin between 1961 and 1963, initial operations in South Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia, Panama, Grenada, Libya, Operation Earnest Will, peacekeeping and sanction missions against Iraq, Operation Northern Watch, Operation Southern Watch, Operation Vigilant Sentinel, and United Nations action, including Bosnia and Somalia. Additional awards of the medal are denoted by service stars, with the arrowhead device also warranted for U.S. Army personnel who are granted the decoration through involvement in an airborne or amphibious assault. The Fleet Marine Force combat operation insignia is also warranted for certain sailors.