The Depot

Purple Heart Recipients: 8 Men Who Earned the Most Purple Hearts

The Purple Heart is the American military’s oldest award dating back to the Revolutionary War. George Washington himself designed it, however, it was called the Badge of Military Merit. The badge was presented only a few times and the award went dormant until the 1900s. Gen. Douglas MacArthur eventually revived the award and created what we know today as the Purple Heart.  He is also one of the first Purple Heart recipients.

The Purple Heart is one of those military awards that most military members would be proud to receive, however, it isn’t an award anyone in uniform necessarily wants, because to receive it, an individual must be wounded or killed.

Most in the ranks consider themselves lucky if they become one of the millions of Purple Heart recipients that have been presented the medal and survived, but there are a handful of men who have been wounded in battle so many times, that they are well-known within the military culture as some of the toughest men to have ever worn the uniform.

In all, there is only one of these Purple Heart recipients that stands out with the most awards of the Purple Heart medal. The other seven Purple Heart recipients are tied with eight awards each.

1. Staff Sgt. Albert L. Ireland
U.S. Marine Corps Staff Sergeant Albert Ireland is the U.S. service member awarded the most Purple Hearts not just in the Marine Corps, but in all U.S. military branches. Having served in World War II and later in the Korean War, Ireland was wounded in action nine times.

He is likely the most famous of Purple Heart recipients having served in the Pacific Theater during World War II. There, while serving as a machine gunner, he was wounded in combat five times. After WWII, he remained in the Marine Corps Reserve and was called back to service for the Korean War. Initially, regulations prevented him from serving in the war since he had been wounded more than twice, but Ireland applied for a waiver and received it.

He fought in Korea and went on to receive four more Purple Heart medals. His final injuries forced him out of military service. He went on to serve as a firefighter and died in 1997.

2. Lt. Col. Richard J. Buck
U.S. Army Lt. Col. Richard Buck was freshly graduated from West Point when he shipped to Korea in 1951. In the Korean War, Buck was wounded four times, earning four Purple Heart medals. He also earned the Combat Infantry Badge, a Silver Star for distinguished gallantry in action and three Bronze Star medals for distinguished heroism against an enemy.

However, like many on this list of Purple Heart recipients, he was not done. After the Korean War, Buck earned a graduate degree at Yale, bounced around in some high-level assignments and eventually found himself joining Special Forces. He then headed to Vietnam.

While in Vietnam, Buck was wounded four more times, bringing his Purple Heart total to eight. He also earned his second Silver Star for distinguished gallantry in action; four additional Bronze Star Medals (two for valor) for distinguished heroism against an enemy; four Air Medals for meritorious achievement beyond that normally expected, while participating in aerial flight; and the Army Commendation Medal for distinguished service. Buck retired in 1970. He died in 1989.

3. Maj. Gen. Robert T. Frederick
U.S. Army Major General Robert Frederick has the distinction of being the only general officer on this distinguished list of Purple Heart recipients. He was a founding member of the 1st Special Service Force in World War II, a unit in which he fought with in Italy, the Aleutian Islands, and North Africa.

Like many Purple Heart recipients from WWII, Frederick saw his fair share of combat with the 1st Special Service Force, and he was wounded several times. While fighting at Anzio he was wounded twice the same day. By the end of WWII, Frederick had received eight Purple Hearts, two Distinguished Service Crosses, and a Silver Star. He retired in 1952 and died in 1970.

In 1968, the movie, The Devil’s Brigade, was released. The actor William Holden played Frederick who was the unit’s commander. Frederick is considered by some to be the last general to actually fight in combat.

4. Col. David H. Hackworth
U.S. Army Colonel David Hackworth, affectionately known as “Hack,” was considered at one point in time the most decorated military veteran alive. He was also outspoken, and loved by most Joes, but he got mixed reviews from officers. He is best known for his epic book, About Face.

Hackworth came up the ranks the hard way. He was a battlefield commissioned officer having served in the Korean and Vietnam Wars. During the Korean War, Hack was awarded three Purple Heart medals.

He is on this list of Purple Heart recipients because after Korea, he returned to combat years later when he deployed to Vietnam. Like Korea, he served multiple tours in Vietnam. He would go on to earn another five Purple Heart medals, brining his total to eight Purple Hearts.

Hack is the only service member to ever be awarded the most Silver Stars; ten.

5. Capt. Joe Hooper
Hooper enlisted in the United States Navy in December 1956. After graduation from boot camp, he served aboard the USS Wasp and USS Hancock. He was honorably discharged in 1959 and about a year later he enlisted in the U.S. Army as an infantryman in 1960.

Hooper spent time in Korea and Panama before making his way to Vietnam. Eventually he deployed with the 101st Airborne Division and in 1968, Hooper’s heroic actions outside of Hue earned him the Medal of Honor and one of his first Purple Heart medals.

During his second tour in Vietnam, Hooper received a battlefield commission to second lieutenant, and he would go on to earn seven more Purple Heart medals, along with two Silver Stars, six Bronze Star medals for valor, and the Combat Infantryman Badge. He is credited with 115 enemy killed in ground combat, 22 of which occurred in the battle that earned him the Medal of Honor. He became one of the most-decorated soldiers in the Vietnam War. He died in 1979.

6. Col. Robert L. Howard
Howard is one of four officers on this list to be promoted to the officer ranks directly from the enlisted ranks. He enlisted in the U.S. Army in 1956 and eventually found his way into Special Forces.

In 1967 Howard was assigned to Military Assistance Command, Vietnam – Studies and Observations Group in Vietnam. He spent four and a half years serving in Vietnam. He earned a Silver Star and the Distinguished Service Cross during those years.

In 1968, he earned the Medal of Honor and his first Purple Heart medal. He would get wounded seven more times before leaving Vietnam. He retired as a colonel in 1992. He died in 2009 in Waco, Texas.

7. Col. William L. Russell
Russell is the only National Guardsman on this Purple Hearts recipients list. He enlisted in the 153rd Infantry Regiment of the Arkansas National Guard during World War II and like others on this Purple Heart recipients list, he was the recipient of a direct commission.

During his time with the 83rd Infantry Division during World War II, Russell earned a Silver Star and was wounded eight times. After WWII, he returned to Arkansas, but was called up to participate in the Korean War. He retired from the military in 1965 as a colonel. He died in 2000.

8. Sgt. Maj. William Waugh
The second of two enlisted men on this Purple Heart recipients list, Waugh joined the U.S. Army in 1948 and eventually joined the special forces. He deployed to Vietnam in 1961 and went on to earn the Silver Star and his sixth Purple Heart.

Waugh retired in 1972, wounded twice more bringing his Purple Heart medal count to eight. He would continue his government service after his military retirement and he worked for the CIA, including a stint in Afghanistan for Operation Enduring Freedom at the age of 71.

How to Display Military Medals: 3 Ways to Show Your Military Pride

If you’re a military veteran, odds are great that you have earned military medals over the course of your time in uniform. Some of those awards were hard-earned, others were simply added to your record because you participated in a particular operation or event. Regardless of how the awards came to you, it’s important to know how to display military medals.

Hopefully, USAMM’s short list of tips can help guide you as you decide how to display military medals for yourself or a loved one.

How to Display Military Medals: Ribbon Rack Sticker
A sticky rack is a great way to show your military pride. Racks can be designed and organized online and then delivered right to your home. A toolbox, garage wall, laptop, automobile or truck are great places to place sticky ribbon racks.

Some argue that attention-seeking people place these stickers on their vehicles. Arguments like that don’t take into consideration that an entire generation of American warfighter, the Vietnam veteran, returned from war and got little to no recognition for their service. Naturally, now, some Vietnam veterans and other Cold War era veterans might be inclined to show pride in their military service since they were unable to years ago. This is in sharp contrast to modern veterans who have mostly received overwhelming public support and recognition for their service.

The arguments about how to display military medals on a sticky rack will continue with some thinking veterans are seeking attention if they use a sticky rack on something, and others content to proudly display their achievements for others to see. It is a personal choice.

How to Display Military Medals: Shadow Box
Whether you are doing it for yourself or a loved one, a shadow box is great way to answer the question, how to display military medals? USAMM has great tools, like the shadow box builder, that makes it really easy to assemble a shadow box.

Shadow boxes are fantastic ways to store and display military keepsakes. If you are putting together your own military shadow box, ensure it captures the essence of your military service. You can put what you want in it; patches, medals, ribbons, badges and even mementos like MRE hot sauce bottles or c-ration can openers. How to display military medals becomes less important because you are building a box for yourself; to keep your military items stored safely.

However, it is good to consider how to display military medals when you are putting together a shadow box for a family member or another loved one. If assembling a shadow box for a friend or family member, ensure you get the proper documentation from the military branch’s human resources office. This will enable you to purchase medals from military uniform outlets or request military awards from the federal government. While it is true that you can request awards as the next of kin at no charge, these requests can sometimes take months, if not years, to fulfill. Sometimes, purchasing the medals is best, but if you’d like to try to get them gratis from the government, read this article that explains how.

How to Display Military Medals: Ribbon Racks
Obviously if you are still on active, National Guard or reserve status, there will come a time when you need to wear your Class A uniform and your ribbon rack. This tends to be the most popular way on how to display military medals.

There are numerous occasions for service personnel to wear ribbon racks. Class A inspections, special events, military school graduations all might require a freshly updated ribbon rack. How to display military medals on your ribbon racks is guided mostly by uniform regulations of each particular service when you are wearing ribbon racks.

If you are putting together a ribbon rack for a veteran, remember that how to display military medals on a ribbon rack or in civilian attire is guided by uniform regulations of each branch. Simply because they are veterans, that status does not give military veterans the authority to wear military medals incorrectly.

The bottom line is that there are multiple ways on how to display military medals. Hopefully this guide helps.

When Should I Wear My Army Ribbons and Medals?

Image of US military Medals rack

How to wear military medals and ribbons while in uniform is ordinarily covered by the regulations of each branch of service. For example, an Army soldier can get answers about how to wear military medals and ribbons by reviewing Army Regulation 670-1.

Uniform service regulations stipulate in great detail how to wear military medals and ribbons. A quick online search will turn up a uniform regulation, but when in doubt, turn to the experts and ask a non-commissioned officer in the chain of command if you can’t find it.

But if you still have questions about how to wear military medals and ribbons, here are a few general tips. We strongly encourage you to review service specific regulations on how to wear military medals and ribbons.

  • Formal evening attire such as tuxedos and formal evening jackets, require the use of miniature medals and badges. Ribbons are not worn on this uniform.
  • The use of large medals and badges is reserved for daytime attire, but ensure not to wear large medals and ribbons at the same time. The exception is the wear of unit ribbons on the right side on the Army uniform.
  • When wearing civilian attire, ensure you comply with the same rules as if you were in uniform. Mini medals go on a civilian tuxedo (formal wear) and do not wear medals or badges on casual clothing, like a polo shirt.
  • Follow the order of precedence when wearing your awards. Learn more by visiting our army medals and ribbon chart. 
  • Many retirees choose to wear just their highest award’s lapel pin when in business attire. Some also wear small badges. There are no real regulations governing these acts, just exercise common sense and do not bring discredit to you or your hard-earned awards. Remember, lapel pins are worn on the left lapel (just like medals on a tuxedo). And it is generally accepted that you can wear one, but not several.

When in doubt, check your specific branch’s regulations for guidance on how to wear military medals and ribbons.

History of U.S. Military Medals

andre capture medal

In the U.S. military, the history of awards and decorations is, for the most part, not really something that is taught or handed down as a historical legacy. While military medals have an important role in the U.S. military, the history of how military medals became a part of the U.S. military culture is rarely discussed. That said, here’s what we’ve dug up.

A medal is normally metal that is struck with a design to commemorate an event. They are created using various methods, but these days most are done using pressured machines. In the past, bronze, silver and gold were used. Today, most military medals are made of metal alloys.

Antonio di Puccio Pisano, also known more commonly as Pisanello, is known widely as the inventor of the medal as we know it today. Pisano’s first medal, made in 1438, commemorated the visit to Italy of Byzantine emperor John VIII Palaeologus. Pisanello’s medals were small reliefs or portraits and according to historians, they were given out to nobility. Pisanello’s medal-making process stayed in Italy until around the 16th Century and then it spread to neighboring countries in Europe.

While it is subject to debate, the historian Titus Flavius Josephus wrote that Alexander the Great presented a button-like award to one of his military leaders which could mark the first military medal ever presented. And the Romans also used coin-like medallions to recognize military participation, effort and achievement and some of those medallions adorned Roman warriors as jewelry. Roman soldiers decorated themselves with medallions known as phalera. The phalerae that had been awarded to them represented the campaigns in which they had fought.

Similarly, according to an article published by the U.S. Navy, the Egyptians had the Order of the Golden Fly, a golden necklace decorated with flies to signify themselves as a pestilence to the enemy. During the Middle Ages, the jewelry presented for military achievement evolved into a pendant-like item, shaped like a disc. Known as a bracteate, this thin medal included loops that made them easy to wear. One of these, the Liuhard medalet, was struck in 6th Century CE.

In the 16th Century, medals were struck by rulers to commemorate specific events, including military battles and more specifically, military victories. The wider use of military medals was on the rise and the roots of our current military award system grew from this era. Specifically, combatants were presented with tokens from those who had sent them into harm’s way, but it should come as no surprise to anyone in the ranks that the bulk of the appreciation was poured on high-ranking military leaders.

Fast forward to the 13 colonies. Many in the U.S. military ranks incorrectly believe that the first U.S. military medal was the Badge of Military Merit which was created in 1782 and eventually became the Purple Heart. However, the oldest U.S. military medal is in fact the Fidelity Medallion which was created by the Continental Congress in 1780 and presented to those who captured British Army Major John André, the man who had worked with Benedict Arnold to betray the colonies. The Fidelity medal, also known as the André Capture Medal, was presented to three soldiers who were members of the New York militia. Privates Isaac Van Wart, David Williams and John Paulding all received the award. The Fidelity Medallion was never again awarded and for this reason the Badge of Military Merit is considered the first military medal of the U.S. military.

It is worth noting though that the Continental Congress had voted to present General George Washington, General Horatio Gates and Captain John Paul Jones with gold medallions for their national contributions in defeat of the British, however, the recognition would not be bestowed until 1790 after Washington was president. So the first-ever U.S. military medals were presented to Army privates and not high-ranking officers.

And while those who have served understand the difference, it is important to note that many in the civilian sector make no differentiation between awards and decorations. Yet they are two vastly different things. A decoration is usually earned for specific acts of bravery or achievement. An award or service medal is usually presented for service in a particular role or for service in a particular geographical area during a specific period of time.

For example, a military member who served as part of the COVID-19 response is eligible to wear the Armed Forces Service Medal or the Humanitarian Service Medal see (Depot Blog article). A soldier who deployed to Iraq is authorized to wear the Iraqi Campaign Medal and a soldier who has deployed to Afghanistan is authorized to wear the Afghanistan Campaign Medal, much like the Vietnam Service Medal is awarded for service in the geographical theater areas of Vietnam. These awards are earned by participation in a specific operation, like the Southwest Asia Service Medal for Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm.

One of the lesser known and early “service medals” is the Légion d’honneu which was created by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1802 to recognize meritorious service. The award has since evolved into being one of France’s highest honors, but when Bonaparte created it, the award was inclusive and awarded to all ranks. Bonaparte recognized that these awards had a positive impact on the morale of his soldiers. They were, however, normally restricted for wear in formal uniforms. Bonaparte’s soldiers, in keeping with practices established by the Crusaders hundreds of years earlier, wore their awards over their left breast near the heart. The left side is also the shield side where swords were normally worn to be drawn with the right hand, shields protected not only the heart, but the awards.

Decorations are presented to the individual for gallantry, meritorious service or achievement. For example, a private can earn an Army Achievement Medal for being an exceptional soldier. A sailor can develop a new maintenance widget on a ship that saves the Navy millions of dollars per year and earn a Navy and Marine Corps Commendation Medal. A Marine can fight like a lion in a firefight while deployed and earn a Silver Star for gallantry. The point is, there are some awards that are given to everyone for being a part of an event (commemorating an event) and there are some medals presented to the individual for a job well done.

The one thing we know for sure is the military medals system of the U.S. military is imperfect. It is a system where some argue that awards like the Bronze Star Medal, Air Medal, Meritorious Service Medal, Legion of Merit and other military medals are given out too liberally to those who are closer to the flag pole and those who are out executing the mission and putting themselves at greater risk earn military medals of lesser impact. Opinions vary on the efficacy of the U.S. military medals system, but one thing is definite.

It was George Washington’s establishment of the Badge of Military Merit in 1782 that truly ushered in the use of U.S. military medals and created a military medals system for gallantry, fidelity and service. In 1932, Army Chief of Staff, General Douglas MacArthur revived the dormant Badge of Military Merit and the Purple Heart was established by order of the president with Washington’s likeness in the center of the medal and the words “For Military Merit” stamped on the reverse side of the medal, a tip of the hat to the award’s original roots.

How To Display Military Medals in a Shadow Box

Black Felt Memorabilia Shadow Box

Serving in the U.S. military is not about the individual. Our men and women in uniform perform their duty for many reasons. Some are patriotic and serve because of love of country. Others feel that their duty is to care for the person standing to the left and right of them in the ranks. And some feel an obligation, a debt, to give back to the country. Whatever the reason for their service, one thing is certain, those who serve do so unselfishly, putting the needs of the nation, the service branch and their units before their own.

Once a military member hangs up his or her boots, many veterans capture and preserve their military service by creating a shadow box or having one ordered. Shadow boxes capture a unique period in a person’s life and unlike the selfless military duty that the contents represent, shadow boxes should be customized and personal, regardless of whether you put them together yourself, or allow a professional to assemble it for you.

There is no incorrect way to display your service pride in a shadow box. What goes into a shadow box is completely up to the individual whose service is reflected in the box. While military medals are for most veterans the primary items that are encased in a shadow box, it isn't uncommon to see ka-bars displayed alongside of military medals in shadow boxes, dog leashes and collars sharing a shadow box with military medals and even an old c-rations can that had a piece of shrapnel in it, proudly displayed alongside of military medals, patches, pins and stripes. Each shadow box is unique to the individual it represents because each person’s military experience is so unique to them.

For many, shadow boxes include a veteran’s rank, earned badges, professional designations and qualifications, and of course military medals, awards and decorations. Some believe that because the military is a place of order and discipline, that a shadow box has to be structured accordingly. Not true. If an individual wants his shadow box to only include his Purple Heart, dog tags and his Zippo lighter, then his or her shadow box should only include those items. If the veteran does not want the rest of their military medals included in the box, they’ve earned the right to determine what is best reflective of their military service.

However, if a veteran decides to display medals and ribbon racks, then it is advisable to place the medals and ribbons in order of precedence according to the veteran’s military branch. This not only shows respect for the services and the awards and decorations, but also to the millions of individuals who might have earned the military medals.

Ranks, if included in the shadow box, should probably go in order of precedence as well just to make it easier to explain to individuals who are unfamiliar with military service.

The bottom line is that there is no limit to what can be included in a shadow box. Flags and photographs can also be included along with other mementos from a veteran’s military service, as well as military medals. What goes into a military shadow box and how it is arranged is completely up to the veteran.